Submarines Association Australia
North Queensland Branch Inc.Submarines  

..........N.B..  The information displayed on this website is of an informal nature only and not meant as advice for DVA claims or any legal instrument. When making DVA claims, please make contact with a qualified Welfare or Pensions Officer, or seek guidance from your local DVA office........

Welfare Officer

http://saanq.org:80/resources/Pictures/Brian%20Germain.JPG 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brian Germain

31 Coral Street

Bowen

0438 358 033

briangermain@live.com.au

 

SAA NQ Welfare Advisor

Snow Schleicher

Irwin ( Snow) Schleicher

snow77bh@gmail.com

 

 

Submarine SPECIAL OPS.PDF

 DVA Travel.pdf

MC17-002544 GERMAIN - Minister signed response FINAL.pdf

Budget 2014 Impact Analysis.pdf

 Useful Reading for Vets and Pension recipients 

RMA Investigation.docx

What you should know.docx

What the Prime Minister said....docx

Slap in the face.docx

Fair is foul and foul is fair PDF.pdf

FROM OUR MATES TO YOU.doc

A very interesting read (NEW)

 http://steveroseblog.com/2016/08/16/military-betrayal-civilian-isolation/

 

Oberon Class Submarine Occupational Hygiene Project Final Report

 

Survey of Weights and Equipment
Used by various Branches & Categories
of the
Royal Australian Navy

This document has been compiled by the Pensions Officers of the Huskisson RSL Sub – Branch, PO Box 31, Huskisson NSW 2540

CONTENTS
Topic                                                                          Page
Introduction                                                           3
Ownership                                                              3
Approval                                                                 3
Weight Tables                                                         4
General Stores                                                         4
Ammunition & Weapons                                         5
Marine Engineering                                                  5
Gas Bottles & Cylinders                                         5
Pumps & Hoses                                                       6
Machinery Spares                                                   6
Fuels, Oils & Lubricants                                          6
Re-Fuelling Equipment                                             6
Workshop Items                                                      7
Lagging & Insulation                                                7
Naval Shipwright Items                                           7
Electrical Items                                                        7
Naval Aviation                                                        8
Air Engineering                                                        8
Air Weaponry                                                          8
Air-Frame                                                                 8
Submarine                                                                  9
Seamanship                                                                9
Clearance Diving                                                        9
NBCD                                                                          10
Ships Fittings                                                               10
Safety Equipment                                                         10
Attachment “A”                                                            11
Attachment “B”                                                            12
Attachment “C”                                                            13
Attachment “D”                                                            14
Sample DVA Weight Chart                                            17


 

INTRODUCTION
The Following tables have been put together in order to assist Pensions and Welfare Officers who are assisting clients with claims for compensation for injury or disability suffered as a result of Military Service. This guide is focused mainly on the men and women who served in the Royal Australian Navy but may assist other groups who may have been attached to the RAN for service reasons or used similar equipment and material in the course of their service careers.
Quite a lot of effort and man-hours has been spent compiling this listing; many of the weights have been obtained from Military Books of Reference (BR’s & ABR’s), some from original equipment suppliers such as “BOC – Linde Gases” and others from current and ex serving members of the RAN with extensive military service. Many items could not be confirmed as being a particular weight due in part to the equipments no longer being in service or ships decommissioned and paid off, however by canvassing various branch groups and organisations the weights shown are as close as can be expected based on time and memory.
Please note, this document should be used as a guide only and not as an actual source of reference when completing a claim, obviously there will be some anomalies but the authors have done their best with what was available (nothing), and would welcome any constructive criticism and or suggestions that may improve either content or layout.

OWNERSHIP
The Huskisson RSL Sub-Branch and the Authors of this text freely grant full use of this document to any and all Eligible Service Organisations that are aiding and assisting the ex service community and current serving members of the Defence Forces of Australia.

Huskisson RSL Sub-Branch is prepared to update this document as additional items become available however it may be better placed for maintenance with either the RSL of Australia, Naval Association of Australia or any other body that has staff that are able to update this as required.

Approval
Approval to use the LOGO of the RSL of Australia has yet to be granted however should this not be approved the content of the document will not change.

NOTES
Note 1  Weights shown were obtained from Military Books of Reference and some from current and ex serving members of the RAN with extensive military service in specialised fields i.e. victualling staff. Many items could not be confirmed as being a particular weight as it is no longer available due to upgrade or vessels being decommissioned or paid off. Canvassing of various branch and category groups has given the weights shown as close as possible based on time and memory.
Note 2  The weight of General stores items was determined by class or type of ship that the stores were made available to. Compliment or crew size was another determining factor in the goods supplied, for example a 150 lb (68 kG) bag of flour would be unsuitable for a patrol boat crew of about 25 men. To this end the weight shown is for Destroyer Escort crews of about 260 men up to Australia’s largest ships the Aircraft Carriers with a crew of 989 when aircrew were embarked.

General Stores


Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Potatoes

Bags

25 - 68

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Onions

Bags

34

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Cabbage

Bags

35 - 40

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Carrots

Bags

23

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Pumpkin

Bags

34 - 40

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Flour

Bags

23 - 68

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Sugar

Bags

34

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Salt

Bags

68

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Meat

Carton

32

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Butter

Boxes

27

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Dripping (Beef)

Carton

25

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Frying Oil

Cans

25

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Lard

Carton

25

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Eggs

Carton

12.5

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Milk

Cans

90

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Quick Frozen Veg's

Carton

22

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Tinned Fruit and Veg'

Cans

20

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Fruit Pulp

Cans

15

See note 2, items varied depending on State & Country

Beer

Carton

9.2

Weighing on scale, 2 usually carried at a time

Beer

Kegs

81

18 Gallon kegs for messes and canteens

Soft drink

Carton

9

Weighing on scale, 2 usually carried at a time

Detergent

Drum

22

Weighing on scale, 2 usually carried at a time

Bulk Ice

Ea

36

80 lb per piece, used as dead mans ice

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ammunition & Weapons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

4 inch fixed shell

Ea

35

Gunnery Manuals

4.5 inch shell

Ea

30.2

Gunnery Manuals

4.5 inch casing

Ea

8

Gunnery Manuals

5 inch shell

Ea

34

Gunnery Manuals

5 inch casing

Ea

14

Gunnery Manuals

40 / 60 shell

Case

36.36

Gunnery Manuals

7.62 Ammunition

Container

 

See note 2

0.50 Cal Machine Gun

Ea

38

Gunnery Manuals

0.50 Ammunition Box

Container

 

See note 2

Mortar Mk 10, live

Ea

80

See note 2

Mortar Mk 10, practice

Ea

60

See note 2

40 / 60 Bofors, Gun Barrels

Ea

85

See note 2

21" Torpedoes, Daring & Battle Class Destroyers

Ea

1200

Man-lifted into torpedo tubes, no lifting aids used

 

 

 

 

Marine Engineering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Main Engine Manoeuvring Valves

 

 

See Notes at end of Document, Attachment A

Main Engine Turning Gear Pins

Ea

40

See Notes at end of Document, Attachment B

Boiler Internal Gear

Ea

> 80

Cyclone Separators, Feed tubes, etc, Attachment C

 

 

 

 

 

Gas Bottles & Cylinders

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Oxygen Bottle 'G'

Ea

62.2

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Oxygen Bottle 'E'

Ea

34

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Acetylene Bottles 'G'

Ea

62.7

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Acetylene Bottles 'E'

Ea

32

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Refrigerant R-12 'E'

Ea

62

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Refrigerant R-12 'P'

Ea

31.5

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

CO2 Bottles, 'G'

Ea

63.8

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pumps & Hoses

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

CUB Diesel Pumps

Ea

130

See Note 2 above

Snorer Pumps

Ea

90

See Note 2 above

Submersible Pumps

Ea

40

See Note 2 above

P250 Pumps

Ea

39

See Note 2 above

6 inch hoses

Ea

90

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Machinery Spares

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Toolbox Metal Engineers

Ea

32

Weighing on scale

Paxman Diesel Cylinder heads

Ea

86

Weighing on scale

40 HP Outboard engines

Ea

72

Johnson Australia

Turbine Covers

Ea

30 to 100

See Note 2 above

Boiler Gauge Glass Assemblies

Ea

35

See Note 2 above

Flywheels

Ea

10 to 120

See Note 2 above

Bearing Covers

Ea

29

See Note 2 above

Steam Valves

Ea

> 60

See Note 2 above

Water Valves

Ea

> 40

See Note 2 above

Hydraulic Piping

Ea

> 70

See Note 2 above

Steam Piping

Ea

> 200

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Fuels, Oils & Lubricants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

205 litre (44 Gallon) oil drums

Ea

210

Weighing on scale

20 Litre Gamlen drums

Ea

22

Weighing on scale

Outboard Motor Fuel tanks

Ea

23

Weighing on scale

 

 

 

 

Re-Fuelling Equipment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

6 inch Gooseneck fittings

Ea

45

See Note 2 above

Quick release Couplings

Ea

60

See Note 2 above

Nato Couplings

Ea

28

See Note 2 above

Probe refuelling connections

Ea

80

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

 

Workshop Items

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Steel bars

Ea

90

See Note 2 above

Bronze bars

Ea

75

See Note 2 above

Brass bars

Ea

78

See Note 2 above

Whitemetal to make bearings

Ea

40

See Note 2 above

Chain blocks & Slings

Ea

25

See Note 2 above

Lathe Chucks

Ea

30

See Note 2 above

Milling Machine Dividing Head

Ea

35

See Note 2 above

Ventilation Fans

Ea

28

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Lagging & Insulation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Boiler Bricks

Box

36

See Note 2 above

Lagging Cement

Bag

45

See Note 2 above

Refractory Cement

Drum

40

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Naval Shipwright Items

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Shoring (100 x 100 x 4000)

Ea

27

Weighing on scale

Toolbox - Primary Wooden

Ea

65

Weighing on scale

Toolbox - Daily use

Ea

27

Weighing on scale

Oxy Welding & Cutting Equipment

 

 

See Engineering Above

Boxes of Linoleum Tiles

Carton

38

See Note 2 above

Tile adhesive

Drum

40

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Electrical Items

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Toolbox

Ea

25

Weighing on scale

Shore Power Cables

Ea

750

See Note 2 above

Spare parts

Ea

> 60

See Note 2 above

Automatic Voltage Regulators

Ea

49

See Note 2 above

Gunnery System Modules

Ea

> 42

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Naval Air Items

 

 

 

Reference Manuals,  NAV WEPS OP 1866, NAV AIR 11-95-7,
NAV AIR 11-1-103

 

 

 

Air Engineering

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Air Eng' Tool Boxes

Ea

25

Weighing on scale

Main Rotor Blade Removal Sling

EA

52

Weighing on scale

Gear Box Tail Rotor

EA

50

SeaHawk Tech manual

Gear Box Main Rotor

EA

80

SeaHawk Tech manual

Nitrogen Cylinders

Ea

20

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Lubricating Oil

Drums

22

Weighing on scale

 

 

 

 

Air Weaponry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

20mm Canon

Ea

50

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

20mm Canon Ammunition

100 rounds

50

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

LAU 68 Rocket Pod

Ea

100

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

LAU 10 Rocket Pod

Ea

280

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand, & winch

Sidewinder Missile

Ea

80

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand & winch

Sidewinder Missile Launcher

Ea

60

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

PMBR Bomb Rack

Ea

50

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

TER bomb Rack

Ea

60

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

SUU 44 Flare Dispenser

Ea

200

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand & winch

500 Lb Bomb

Ea

250

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand & winch

250 Lb Bomb

Ea

120

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand & winch

25 Lb Practice Bombs

Ea

12

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

AERO 7A-1 Bomb Rack

Ea

40

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

AERO 20A-1 Bomb Rack

Ea

33

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand

7.62 Mini Gun, Pod & Ammunition

Ea

68

Nav Wep Op 1866, by hand, 2 people

 

 

 

 

Airframe Items

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Long Range Fuel tanks (300 gal)

Ea

120

2 Person Lift

Long Range Fuel tanks (150 gal)

Ea

75

2 Person Lift

Ejection Seat (Skyhawk)

Ea

30

by hand

RSSK8A, Parachute & Dingy Pack

Ea

22

by hand

Ejection Seat (Martin Baker)

Ea

27

by hand

Parachute & Dingy Pack

Ea

20

by hand

 

 

 

 

Submarine Items

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

ASR '1' Cylinder Heads

Ea

65

RAN Tech manual

Access Hatch Strongbacks

Ea

40

See Note 2 above

Engineers Toolbox

Ea

25

Weighing  on scale

Main Engine Governor

Ea

40

See Note 2 above

Hydraulic Pumps

Ea

65

See Note 2 above

Group Exhaust Valve

Ea

102

See Note 2 above

Snort Mast Motor

Ea

107

See Note 2 above

Torpedoes

Ea

1579

RAN Tech manual (10 men per torpedo)

Shore Power Cables

Ea

200

See Note 2 above

Portable Radar Sets

Ea

42

See Note 2 above

Davits from casing Storage

Ea

36

See Note 2 above

Casing Covers

Ea

39

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Seamanship Items

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Chains

Ea

6 - 25, per link

See Note 2 above

Shackles

Ea

Aug-30

See Note 2 above

20 litre paint drums

Ea

24

See Note 2 above

Drums of Thinners - Turps etc

Ea

18

See Note 2 above

Over Ships Side Staging

Ea

30

See Note 2 above

Hi-line transfer weights

Ea

100

See Note 2 above

Blake Slips

Ea

> 70

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Clearance Divers

 

 

 

 

Please see attachment D at the rear of this document which is a report from the University of Wollongong on the Physically Demanding tasks placed on Divers.

Although the report is undated and signed it was forwarded by the RAN Diving school to which we are grateful.

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Bolt Gun (Temple Cox)

Ea

16.8

Tech Manual

Air Hoses and other equipment

Roll

Over 50

See Note 2 above

Compressed Air Bottle 'G'

Ea

61.8

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Compressed Air Bottle 'E'

Ea

32.2

BOC Gases Australia (Linde Group)

Mixed Diving gases

Set

> 60

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

NBCD Equipment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Bauer Compressor

Ea

46

See Note 2 above

CABA Breathing Equipment

Ea

18

See Note 2 above

Fire Extinguishers

Ea

22

See Note 2 above

AFFF Foam Concentrate

Drums

29

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Ships Fittings

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Hatches

Ea

> 80

See Note 2 above

 

 

 

 

Safety Equipment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item

How Supplied

Weight in kG

Reference

Rolls of Vinyl & Canvas

Roll

50

See Note 2 above

Liferafts (20 man)

Ea

112

See Note 2 above

Survival at Sea Packs

EA

52

See Note 2 above

 

Attachment A to
Marine Engineering Section

Steam Propelled Ships Manoeuvring Valve Operation
The Main Propulsion of early classes of Ships was managed by the controlled admission of High Pressure, High Temperature Steam into steam turbine engines that rotated the turbine in the desired direction by way of Ahead and Astern Manoeuvring Valves. The turbine then drove the main gearing and by way of Shafts and Support Bearings (Plumber Blocks) caused the Propeller to rotate.
These Valves were very large and extremely hard to open and close, the handwheels attached to these valves were 3’ 6” (1060mm), in diameter and by a series of rod gearing would open or close the valve that normally was immediately adjacent to the steam turbine.
To open or close these valves an operator would take all of the backlash from the rod gearing and them slam hard in the required direction to rotate the propeller as directed by the Command.
During Manoeuvring operations it was not uncommon to have to have the Engine Room Artificers and Throttle Watchkeepers relieved on watch due to sore necks and shoulders and jarred backs, there was an instance onboard HMAS Anzac in about 1971 that over 300 separate engine orders were passed down while coming alongside a wharf in Wellington Harbour, without the aid of tugs (due to an industrial strike) and extremely strong crosswinds the Engine room staff were replaced three times in just on 40 minutes.
The introduction of Sequential Nozzle control Valves removed the stress and strain put upon the bodies of the engineering staff of the older ships, without getting into the engineering jargon that would cause confusion these new type of valve could be easily opened and closed by on operative without any undue hardship at all.
The types or class of ship affected by the older manoeuvring valves were Tribal class destroyers, Q class destroyers later modified to anti submarine frigates, Battle class destroyers, HMAS Supply, and all of the three aircraft carriers.
Sequential controlled valves were introduced on Daring Class destroyers, Charles F Adams Class Destroyers (DDG) and the newer Destroyer Escorts with the propulsion designation Y-100 & Y-136.
This Statement has been included for Clients that are considering a claim for lumbar spondolis or similar, and who’s weights may not reach the required total to satisfy a claim.

Attachment B to
Marine Engineering Section

Steam Propelled Ships Main Turbine Turning Gear Pins
Main Engine Turning Gear Pins were used in the older classes of ship such as Tribal Class Destroyers, Battle Class Destroyers, HMAS Supply and Aircraft Carriers, the function of these pins was that they were installed into the rear of the main propulsion gearbox and with the aid of an electric motor or by hand using 2 men, rotate the propeller shaft and turbine to slowly heat or cool the turbine such that it was evenly heated or cooled at a controlled rate. Please note that Steam Turbines often weighed in excess of several tonnes depending on class of warship
These pins weighed about 40 kilo’s each and had to manhandled into the rear part of a gearbox to be used. When not in use the steam turbine was not permitted to be rotated unless the pins were physically located and sighted by the Engineering Officer of the Watch as being in their designated stowage on the steaming platform, otherwise catastrophic damage would occur to the gearbox and drive system (Quill Shafts and couplings for the technically minded).
As stated these pins were very heavy requiring removal from their stowage which was at about deck level (level with the feet), hoisted onto the steaming platform, then up a series of steps and stairs into the main gearing room, then down steps and stairs and lifted to about head height to be inserted into the rear of the gearbox.
The evolution of fitting or removing the pins required 11 lifts in and out and often left the slightly built crewmember very stiff and sore for a considerable time.

Attachment C to
Marine Engineering Section

Boiler Internal Gear
Boiler Internal Gear is a series of parts and fittings that are designed to prevent Water Carry Over into the Steam Turbines and cause serious blade damage. Boiler Internal Gear was installed in all steam propelled ships.
The installation and removal of the internal gear was usually undertaken when the ship was in a refitting period or as determined by the Fleet Boiler Inspector, these inspections took place at no more than 12 monthly intervals with the only exception being granted by the Fleet marine Engineering Officer and only in exceptional circumstances.
Most parts were cumbersome and difficult to move in and out through the only access which was a standard boiler manhole about 18 inches wide by about 12 inches tall, it was difficult to get in and out of the boilers placing considerable strain on the lower back and neck. When inside the boiler it was quite claustrophobic and some engineering personnel could not work inside the boiler drums.
The heaviest parts were those called the cyclone separators at about 80 kilo’s each and depending on their position at either the front or rear of the boiler determined how many times they had to be lifted to get to the manhole door, there were many large and heavy components to e removed and replaced each maintenance period. Usually only two engineering personnel would be in the boilers at any one time but were changed on a regular basis, about every 30 minutes to allow fresh air to forced into the boilers and to rotate staff.

Attachment D

Research into the Tasks and Physical Skill Levels
of
Royal Australian Navy Clearance Divers

Conducted by
The University of Wollongong

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The current research focussed upon developing a general taxonomy of physically demanding tasks of the ADF Clearance Diver, from which a subset of meaningful tasks may be derived, and upon which a job-performance barrier test may be based. The methods employed by theresearch team included both survey and experimental techniques and covered matters relating to diver injury, physical fitness, workplace assessments of physically demanding tasks, and the prescription for developing a barrier test.

The principal observations and conclusions from this project include:
I, More than 95% of divers reported injuries whilst undertaking their duties, which reduced operational readiness and accounted for 1.3-2.0 days of absence from work per diver per month. The most common injuries were: lower back pain, muscle strain and knee injury.

2. The Clearance Diver is exposed to a wide range of work-related physical stress. Which may vary by a factor of five between tasks. From a subjective perspective (survey responses), land-based, heavy materials handling and tasks involving endurance swimming or modes of diver water entry / exit, were deemed to be the most physically – stressful Clearance Divers duties.

3. During their recreational hours, divers perform vigorous endurance exercise an average of four times per week, with an average duration of 44.4 min. These frequency and duration combinations both exceed the standard endurance training volume recommended for the maintenance of functional capacity in adults. More than 55 % of divers exercised five or more sessions each week during their off duty hours.

4. From endurance testing and predictive data, it was found that divers were between the 75 th – 80 th percentile for cardio-respiratory fitness. Divers had superior upper- and lower-body strength, being within the top 10% of the Australian population. However, lower back and hip joint flexibility was less than expected, even for a group of sedentary Australian adults of this age.

5. Clearance Divers must handle more than 1,500 items during a typical operational loadout with a total mass of >43,000 kg, with 14 of these items being greater than or equal to the average body mass of the divers tested. All items were lifted, or lowered, vertically 1.5 m from the ground to truck tray height. The typical carriage distance was 120 metres for all items.

 

6. Forty - four percent of these tasks involved lift and carrying activities conducted on
land and using primarily the upper-body muscle groups. Twenty -two percent involved tasks associated with arm pulling. but utilising both the upper and lower body musculature. On the basis of current diver strength measurements, it may be concluded that satisfactory performance of these duties would require an upper-body strength-mass ratio of between 1.2 – 1.6.  Twenty-two percent of the physically-demanding tasks were associated with carrying loads, but utilising the whole body to perform the activity. To satisfactorily perform these tasks, one must be able to carry a load of  50-60kg over distances from 100-220 metres.

7. The most commonly performed general movement action involved upper-body lift and carriage (39% of observed tasks). The second most common action was load pulling, in which the whole body became heavily involved (28% of tasks observed). The dominating physical fitness attribute necessary to undertake these tasks was strength; identified as the primary fitness component for 50% of the observed tasks. The second most common primary fitness attribute was local muscle endurance; identified within 39% of the observed tasks.

8. Within the observed performance of the current tasks, it is the opinion of the research team that a moderate to high risk of injury existed for the lumbar spine region. This view is supported by the high incidence of this injury reported within both the RAN medical records, and the injury self-recall data, this hazard is exacerbated by poor equipment design or lifting technique. The low flexibility of the divers further elevates the injury risk. In team lifting situations, which sometimes are associated with an uneven distribution of theload between divers, the injury risk to divers of smaller stature, or strength, will be significantly elevated.

9. This report provides the means for the development of both barrier and routine fitness tests. This prescription is based upon the application of sound scientific principles and reasoning. A five-point prescription forsuch testing is recommended: (i) a central focus should involve lifting and carrying, using upper-body muscles; (ii) a secondary focus should incorporate pulling actions, using the whole body; (iii) the test must involve a measure of strength; (iv) testing should evaluate local muscle endurance; and (v) the test should include separate tasks designed to assess both whole-body load carriage and lower-body endurance.

10. It is considered that the current fitness and barrier testing procedures, while
appearing to successfully screen out those who may not be suitable to Clearance Diving, are not founded upon a sound scientific justification, and fail to satisfy most of the above prescriptive recommendations. It is therefore strongly recommended that great caution be exercised with the use of this lest, as a means by which to screen potential divers.

11. The methods adopted within this project, and the scientific principles which underpin those methods, may be readily applied to similar such analyses across a wide range of physically-demanding trades.

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 


Powered by Wild Apricot Membership Software